Discussion 1. Kamecia Blake. Write my research paper
Provide any other regional comparisons or patterns that were not previously discussed. 5 sentences and a question
Ayers (1984) examination of crime and punishment in the Old South from 1800 to the Civil War found that slaveholding culture, closeness to the frontier, and overall pessimistic view of human nature help explain crime of the period by which violence stemmed mainly from men protecting their honor. All white Southerners felt the need to protect their honor from public attack. In a place where liquor also lowered barriers to self-restraint, insults in the South often led to quick violence, as men felt the need to protect the honor of their family names. Honor acted as a catalyst that ignited the volatile mix of slavery, liquor, and weapons permeating in the South (Ayers, 1984).
During this period, punishing criminals was based on association, which created isolation. Criminals were confined and isolated in prisons and penitentiaries (Roth, 2011). Many Southerners, especially North Carolinians, viewed state-operated penitentiaries as infringements upon people’s honor and rights. State governments, conversely, often welcomed the social order that accompanied penitentiaries. Cities of the Old South also grew during this period, but in the late 1850s, an economic downturn led to increased public disorder. Many cities created police forces to protect industries and the welfare of their citizens. Most arrests in Southern cities came from young white males for crimes of property, while police officers rarely arrested wealthy Southerners for their illegal infractions. Officers hoped to both deter and punish criminals, but the personal and moderate court systems of the South required most convicted criminals to pay fines, rarely using imprisonment as punishment. The lack of authority invested in police officers, combined with ideas of honor, economic depression, heavy drinking, and a very lenient court system, led to steadily increasing crime throughout the South during the pre-Civil War years (Akers, 1984).
In my region, which is the Caribbean the violent crimes that exist are murder, robberies and aggravated burglaries. The increased use of illegal firearms in the commission of offenses although the Caribbean does not manufacture guns and ammunition continues to be a challenge for law enforcement and border security.
The international comparison from the Civil War will be China with the fall of the Tibetan Dynasty, where crime and punishment were influenced by association, status, and economics.
Ayers, E. (1984). Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the 19th- Century American. New York: Oxford University Press.
Petersilia, J. (1987, June). Retrieved from The influence of Criminal Justice Research: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/150371.pdf
Roth, M. (2011). Crime and Punishment: A history of the Criminal Justice System. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
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